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Bayern, Thüringen, Hessen. Baden-Württemberg, Rheinland-Pfalz, Saarland. Whelches Bundeslander sind im Westen?
Was ist die Hauptstadt capital von Hessen? Was ist die Hauptstadt von Berlin? Was ist die Hauptstadt von Meckleburg-Vorpommern?
Was ist die Hauptstadt von Schleswig-Holstein? Was ist die Hauptstadt von Hamburg? Was ist die Hauptstadt von Bremen? Was ist die Hauptstadt von Niedersachen?
Was ist die Hauptstadt von Sachsen? Was ist die Hauptstadt von Sachsen-Anhalt? Was ist die Hauptstadt von Bayern? Due to the official policy of atheism in the former GDR , most of the population is non-religious.
The historic city centre is located inside the former wall which is the area between Fürstengraben in the north, Löbdergraben in the east, Teichgraben in the south and Leutragraben in the west.
There are only a few historic buildings in this area e. The Eichplatz, a big sub-used square covering a large amount of the centre, has not been built on since the s and the discussion about its future is still in process.
The wall's defortification took place relatively early in the 18th century — and the first suburbs developed in front of the former city gates.
The later 19th and early 20th centuries brought a construction boom to Jena, with the city enlarged to the north and south along the Saale valley, to the west along Mühltal and on the Saale's east side in former Wenigenjena.
Compared with the city centre, later substantial losses were much slighter in this areas. During the interwar period, the construction of flats stayed on a high level but suitable ground got less, so that new housing complexes were set up relatively far away from the centre — a problem that remained until today with long journeys and high rents as consequences.
Today's Jena is not as compact as other cities in the region, and urban planning is still a challenge. Jena has its own theatre and orchestra, the Jenaer Philharmonie.
Compared to then, the results of FC Carl Zeiss are poor today, playing only in 3rd league 3. Both clubs' stadium is the Ernst-Abbe-Sportfeld.
Also, the city's basketball team, Science City Jena played in Basketball Bundesliga in — season and returned to top level in —16 season.
In addition, since , the university of Jena has a rugby team. Current men's javelin throw world record Furthermore, the Muschelkalk soil is not very fertile and is often used as pasture for cattle.
The only large agricultural area is situated around Isserstedt, Cospeda and Vierzehnheiligen district in the northwest. Wine-growing was discontinued during the Little Ice Age around , but is now possible again due to global warming.
Nevertheless, the commercial production of wine hasn't yet resumed. Industry is a great tradition in Jena, reaching back to the midth century.
In , there were 80 companies in industrial production with more than 20 workers employing 8, persons and generating a turnover of more than 1,5 billion Euro.
Jena has the most market-listed companies and is one of the most important economic centres of east Germany.
With companies such as Intershop Communications, Salesforce. Jena-Optronik , a subsidiary of the Airbus Group , develops components for spaceflight or satellites in Jena.
The city is among Germany's 50 fastest growing regions, with many internationally renowned research institutes and companies, a comparatively low unemployment and a young population structure.
Jena was awarded the title "Stadt der Wissenschaft" city of science by the Stifterverband für die Deutsche Wissenschaft , a German science association, in Jena is also a hub of public and private services, specially in education, research and business services.
Other important institutions are the High Court of Thuringia and Thuringia's solely university hospital.
Furthermore, Jena is a regional centre in infrastructure and retail with many shopping centres. Together with the photonics lab Lichtwerkstatt and the Krautspace there are makerspaces and hackerspaces enabling start-ups to create their product ideas and realizing their first prototype and business models as well as networking.
Jena has no central railway station with connection to all the lines at one point. What is relatively common in many countries is quite unusual for a German city and caused on the one hand by the city's difficult topography and on the other hand by the history, because the two main lines were built by two different private companies.
The connection in north—south direction is the Saal Railway with ICE trains running from Berlin in the north to Munich in the south once a day stopping at Paradies station and local trains to Naumburg and Saalfeld stopping at Zwätzen , Saalbahnhof , Paradies and Göschwitz.
The express trains stop at West station near the city centre and Göschwitz, the local trains furthermore at Neue Schenke.
The junction between both lines is the Göschwitz station , approx. When the Nuremberg—Erfurt high-speed railway opened in , the city lost its connection to the long-distance train network.
As compensation, there are new regional express train services to Halle and Leipzig in the north, and to Nuremberg in the south.
The two Autobahnen crossing each other nearby at Hermsdorf junction are the Bundesautobahn 4 Frankfurt—Dresden and the Bundesautobahn 9 Berlin—Munich , which were both built during the s.
The A 4 runs quite next to the Lobeda housing complexes and the Leutra district. Therefore, it was rebuilt in the s and got two tunnels to protect the residents and the environment against noise and air pollution.
Most parts of city centre inside the former walls are pedestrian areas. The next local airports to Jena are the Erfurt—Weimar Airport , approx.
Despite the hilly terrain in some parts, Jena is a cycling city, due to the many students. Cycling has become more popular in Jena since the s when good quality bike paths began to be built.
There are bike lanes along some main streets, though, in comparison to other cities in Germany, there are deficits.
Both of these connect points of tourist interest: the former along the Saale valley from Fichtel Mountains in Bavaria to the Elbe river near Magdeburg , while the latter follows the medieval Via Regia closely and runs from Eisenach via Erfurt , Weimar and Jena to Altenburg via Gera.
The Jena tramway network was established in and enlarged after the German reunification. It connects the major districts with the city centre; there are 5 ordinary lines served in different intervals between 7,5 and 20 minutes.
Nevertheless, there are some old single-track segments interfering the services. Furthermore, there is an extensive network of buses, run like the trams by the "Jenah" organization, a pun on Jena and the German Nahverkehr lit.
After reunification, the educational system was realigned. The University of Jena , established in , was largely extended.
Today there are approximately 21, students at this university. Another college is the Ernst-Abbe-Hochschule Jena , a University of Applied Sciences founded in which offers a combination of scientific training and its practical applications.
There are also nearly 5, students. Further there are six Gymnasiums , five state-owned and one Christian ecumenical.
One of the state-owned is a Sportgymnasium , an elite boarding school for young talents in athletics or football.
Another state-owned Gymnasium the Carl-Zeiss-Gymnasium Jena offers a focus in sciences also as an elite boarding school additionally to the common curriculum.
In , according to a study by Kieler Institut für Weltwirtschaft, Jena was ranked as the fifth-most livable city in Germany. According to the study by Forschungsinstitut Prognos, Jena is one of the most dynamic regions in Germany.
It ranks at number 29 of all German regions. Schröter was defeated seeking re-election in by Thomas Nitzsche of the FDP, who has since served as mayor.
The most recent mayoral election was held on 15 April , with a runoff held on 29 April, and the results were as follows:. Jena is twinned with: .
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Jena disambiguation. Place in Thuringia, Germany. Coat of arms.
Location of Jena within Thuringia. See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany. Thüringer Landesamt für Statistik in German. August Retrieved Longman Pronunciation Dictionary 3rd ed.
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Bayern, Thüringen, Hessen. Baden-Württemberg, Rheinland-Pfalz, Saarland. Whelches Bundeslander sind im Westen? Was ist die Hauptstadt capital von Hessen?
Was ist die Hauptstadt von Berlin? Was ist die Hauptstadt von Meckleburg-Vorpommern? Was ist die Hauptstadt von Schleswig-Holstein? Was ist die Hauptstadt von Hamburg?
Was ist die Hauptstadt von Bremen? Was ist die Hauptstadt von Niedersachen? Was ist die Hauptstadt von Sachsen?
Was ist die Hauptstadt von Sachsen-Anhalt? Was ist die Hauptstadt von Bayern? The Protestant Reformation was brought to the city in Martin Luther visited the town to reorganize the clerical relations and Jena became an early centre of his doctrine.
In the following years, the Dominican and the Carmelite convents were attacked by the townsmen and abolished in Carmelite and Dominican.
An important step in Jena's history was the foundation of the university in Ernestine Elector John Frederick the Magnanimous founded it, because he had lost his old university in Wittenberg to the Albertines after the Schmalkaldic War.
During the Little Ice Age , wine-growing declined in the 17th century, so that the new university became one of the most important sources of income for the city.
The same century brought a boom in printing business caused by the rising importance of books and the population's ability to read in the Lutheran doctrine, and Jena was the second-largest printing location in Germany after Leipzig.
The list of the so-called " Seven Wonders of Jena " was composed by students of the university at this time, supposedly as a test of local knowledge in order to confirm that a person who claimed to have studied in Jena was actually familiar with the city.
Beginning in the 16th century, the Ernestine dynasty saw many territorial partitions. Initially, Jena remained a part of Saxe-Weimar , but in it became the capital of its own small duchy Saxe-Jena.
Around , the university became the largest and most famous one among the German states and made Jena the centre of idealist philosophy with professors like Johann Gottlieb Fichte , Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel , Friedrich Schiller and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling and of the early Romanticism with poets like Novalis, the brothers August and Friedrich Schlegel , and Ludwig Tieck.
In , the poets Goethe and Schiller met at the university and established a long lasting friendship. Consequently, the reputation of the University and the Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach as particularly liberal and open-minded was enhanced.
Resistance against the French occupation was strong, especially among the students. Many of the students fought in the Lützow Free Corps in Two years later, the Urburschenschaft fraternity was founded in the city.
During the later 19th century, the famous biologist Ernst Haeckel was professor at the university. The expansion of science and medicine faculties was closely linked to the industrial boom that Jena saw after The initial spark of industrialization in Jena was the relatively late connection to the railway.
The Saal Railway Saalbahn , opened in was the connection from Halle and Leipzig along the Saale valley to Nuremberg and the Weimar—Gera railway opened connected Jena with Frankfurt and Erfurt in the west as well as Dresden and Gera in the east.
Since that time, production of optical items, precision machinery and laboratory glassware have been the main branches of Jena's economy; Jena glass is even named after the city.
Zeiss, Abbe and Schott worked also as social reformers who wanted to improve the living conditions of their workers and the local wealth in general.
When Zeiss died in , his company passed to the Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung , which uses great amounts of the company's profits for social benefits like research projects at universities etc.
This model became an example for other German companies e. Industrialization fundamentally changed the social structure of Jena. The former academic town became a working-class city; the population rose from 8, around up to 71, at the beginning of World War II.
The city expanded along the Saale valley to the north and the south and its side valleys to the east and the west. In , the tram system started its operation and the university got a new main building established between and on the former castle's site.
After the foundation of Thuringia in , Jena was one of the three biggest cities together with Weimar and Gera , while Erfurt remained part of Prussia and became an independent city in The modern optical and glass industry kept booming and the city grew further during Weimar times.
During the Nazi period, conflicts deepened in Jena between the influential left-wing milieus communists and social democrats and the right-wing Nazi milieus.
On the one hand, the university suffered from new restrictions against its independence, but on the other hand, it consolidated the Nazi ideology, for example with a professorship of social anthropology which sought to scientifically legitimize the Racial policy of Nazi Germany.
Kristallnacht in led to more discrimination against Jews in Jena, many of whom either emigrated or were arrested and murdered by the German government.
This weakened the academic milieu, because many academics were Jews especially in medicine. No other Thuringian city suffered worse damage, except Nordhausen , whose destruction was utter.
The Soviets dismantled great parts of the Zeiss and Schott factories and took them to the Soviet Union. On the other hand, the GDR government founded a new pharmaceutical factory in , Jenapharm , which is part of Bayer today.
The protests with 30, participants drew fire from Soviet tanks. The following decades brought some radical shifts in city planning. During the s, another part of the historic city centre was demolished to build the Jen Tower.
The Eichplatz in front of the tower is still unbuilt and its future is still the subject of ongoing heated discussion. Big Plattenbau settlements were developed in the s and s, because the population was still rising and the housing shortage remained a perpetual problem.
New districts established in the north near Rautal and in the south around Winzerla and Lobeda. The opposition against the GDR government was reinforced during the late s in Jena, fed by academic and clerical circles.
In autumn , the city saw the largest protests in its history before the GDR government was dissolved. After , Jena became part of the refounded state of Thuringia.
Industry came into a heavy crisis during the s, but finally it managed the transition to the market economy and today, it is one of the leading economic centres of eastern Germany.
Furthermore, the university was enlarged and many new research institutes were founded. Especially between and several far-right crimes were committed in Jena.
However the city is no longer considered a far-right hotspot. The municipal terrain is hilly with rugged slopes at the valley's edges.
The city centre is situated at m of elevation, whereas the mountains on both sides of Saale valley rise up to m. On the eastern side those are from north to south : the Gleisberg near Kunitz, the Jenzig near Wogau, the Hausberg near Wenigenjena, the Kernberge near Wöllnitz, the Johannisberg near Lobeda and the Einsiedlerberg near Drackendorf.
On the western side, there are the Jägersberg near Zwätzen, the Windknollen north of the city centre, the Tatzend west of the city centre, the Lichtenhainer Höhe near Lichtenhain, the Holzberg near Winzerla, the Jagdberg near Göschwitz and the Spitzenberg near Maua.
The mountains belong to the geological formation of Ilm Saale Plate Muschelkalk and are relatively flat on their peaks but steep to the valleys in between.
Due to its jagged surface, the municipal territory isn't very suitable for agriculture all the more since the most flat areas along the valley were built on during the 20th century.
At the mountains is some forest of different leaf trees and pines. Ophrys apifera even grows at a few locations within the town.
Firefly can be seen in the meadows in Paradiespark as well as a variety of native wildflowers. Wildlife on the surrounding mountains includes raven , sand lizard and wood ants.
Heron , beaver and muskrat have been seen on the Saale, within the town. Pine martens sometimes come into the town at night, from the mountains, to raid bins.
Jena has a humid continental climate Dfb or an oceanic climate Cfb according to the Köppen climate classification system.
Annual precipitation is millimeters Light snowfall mainly occurs from December through February, but snow cover does not usually remain for long.
During the Middle Ages, Jena was famous for growing wine on its slopes. Due to its distance to coastal areas and position in the Saale valley, wind speeds tend to be very low; predominant direction is SW.
The city itself is divided in 30 districts. The inner-city districts are Zentrum, Nord, West, Süd, Wenigenjena east of Saale, incorporated in and Kernberge, other big districts are Lobeda incorporated in and Winzerla incorporated in in the south with large housing complexes.
Over the centuries, Jena had mostly been a town of 4, to 5, inhabitants. The population growth began in the 19th century with an amount of 6, in and of 8, in Then, a demographic boom occurred with a population of 20, in , 50, in , 73, in , 81, in and , in The peak was reached in with a population of , The bad economic situation in eastern Germany after the reunification resulted in a decline in population, which fell to 99, in before rising again to , in Nachdem es anfänglich nur ganz wenige Regionen erschlossen wurden, versorgt z.
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